Content of the questionnaire
Target audienceChildren & adolescents
ApplicationThe SDQ is one of the most used instruments to assess psychological problems in children and adolescents worldwide. It has been developed to identify children and adolescents that really suffer from these problems. Contrary to other instruments, the SDQ does not only assess problems or difficulties, but also strengths. Additionally to psychosocial issues and strengths, it also assesses their influence on the environment as well as daily functioning. The SDQ can be used for initial as well as follow-up measurements.
The following versions are available:

• SDQ-P 2-4 for parents of 2 to 4-year-olds
• SDQ-P 4-17 for parents of 4 to 17-year-olds
• SDQ-T 2-4 for teachers of 2 to 4-year-olds
• SDQ-T 4-17 for teachers of 4 to 17-year-olds
• SDQ-Y 11-17 for 11-17-year-olds (self-report)

CompositionThe questionnaire measures the scales emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosociality and impact. There is also a total score for difficulties. The items are answered on 3-point scales from “Not true” to “Certainly true”.
Psychometric properties
Reliability & ValidityAll different versions of the SDQ have been assessed in multiple studies which are listed on this page. Generally, the results are good to very good and show support for the underlying theory.
Literature and copyright

Goodman R, Ford T, Simmons H, Gatward R, Meltzer H (2000) Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534-539.

Goodman R (2001) Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337-1345.

Hintermair M (2006) Socio-emotional problems among hearing-impaired children – initial results of the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-D). Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother, 34, 49-61.

Klasen H, Woerner W, Wolke D, Meyer R, Overmeyer S, Kaschnitz W, Rothenberger A, Goodman R (2000) Comparing the German versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Deu) and the Child Behavior Checklist. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 271-276

Woerner W, Becker A, Rothenberger A (2004) Normative data and scale properties of the German parent SDQ. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13 (2), II3-10.

© Goodman, R., Youth in Mind

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