Content of the questionnaire
Target audienceAdults
ApplicationThe Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) have been developed to assess these three constructs without possibly confounding somatic factors. Both, the shorter 21 items version as well as the longer 42 items versions of the DASS are available.
CompositionThe DASS-21 contains seven items for each of the three subscales. The DASS-42 contains fourteen per scale. The items are answered on 4-point likert scales.
Psychometric properties
ReliabilityThe psychometric properties of both versions of the DASS have been assessed in mutiple studies. The results have been very positive and are in the range of good to very good for all scales.
ValidityValidity of both versions of the DASS have been established as well. For the demonstration of convergent validity, the anxiety scale of the DASS has been compared to the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the depression scale to the Beck Depression Inventory.
Literature and copyright

Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.

Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (Instruments for Adults). [DASS]. In J. Fischer & K. Corcoran (2007), Measures for clinical practice and research: A sourcebook (4th ed.) (vol. 2, pp. 219-221). New York: Oxford University Press.

© Lovibond, P.F., Lovibond, S.H.

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